Acetyl-L-carnitine is a superior form of L-carnitine that may be beneficial for the following:
• Energising and protecting the heart and brain
• Preventing age-related memory decline and mental impairment
• Enhancing athletic performance
• Preventing fatigue by facilitating energy supply
• Increased sperm motility in men with infertility
• May increase testosterone production in age-related testosterone deficiency•
• Improves symptoms from age related neuropathy
Each capsule contain the following as active ingredients:
Inactive ingredients: Hypromellose (cellulose) vegetarian capsule shell (gelatine free), microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate (vegetarian - flow agent), magnesium silicate, silicon dioxide and colloidal silicon dioxide.
Store in a cool dry place below 25°C. Keep out of the reach of children.
Acetyl-L-carnitine is the acetylated form of L-carnitine and is superior in terms of bioavailability. The main function of acetyl-L-carnitine is the mediation of transport of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. First, long-chain fatty acids form esters with CoA (acyl-CoA) in a reaction catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase (palmitoyl-CoA in the case of palmitate) in the cytoplasm. The next enzyme, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I performs transesterification by producing fatty acyl-L-carnitine esters (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) on the external surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This enzyme is involved in muscle physiological adaptation and results in a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids and increased glucose utilization. Transport of the long-chain fatty acyl-L-carnitine esters across the inner mitochondrial membrane is mediated by acylcarnitine translocase, a special transport system in exchange for free L-carnitine of mitochondrial origin. On the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, carnitine palmitoyl transferase II catalyzes regeneration of long-chain acyl-CoA (palmitoyl CoA) and it is this form that subsequently undergoes β-oxidation to provide energy. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, the medium chain fatty acids with eight to 12 carbons also require carnitine for oxidation. Acetyl-L-carnitine is structurally related to acetylcholine. It also serves as a precursor to acetyl coenzyme A, and supplies acetyl groups to acetylcholine making it superior to L-carnitine in this aspect. It also seems to promote acetylcholine release and increases choline acetyltransferase activity. It may also lessen oxidative stress and prevent oxidative damage in the brain better than L-carnitine. Carnitine levels are lower in people with complications of diabetes. In diabetic neuropathy, there is damage to sensory neuronal membranes. This causes an increase in sodium channels and therefore an increase in spontaneous neuronal firing. Acetyl-L-carnitine is thought to slow neuronal degeneration or help in the regeneration and repair of neurons and therefore decrease excessive excitability and firing. Acetyl-L-carnitine might improve peripheral as well as autonomic neuropathy. Additionally, preliminary clinical research suggests that acetyl-L-carnitine might also improve glucose utilization, possibly by increasing expression of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes.
Adults and children over 12 years of age: Take 1-2 capsules twice daily.
Children under 12 years of age: Take 1 capsule daily or twice daily.
Take at least 30 minutes before meals, on an empty stomach.
Do not exceed recommended dosages unless on the advice of a health care provider. Do not use this product if you are allergic to any of the ingredients. If you are on any medication or suffering from any medical condition, it is advisable to seek medical advice before starting any new medicine, supplement or remedy.
Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal upset and agitation.
There are no known contraindications.
Warfarin: Use cautiously with warfarin as acetyl-L-carnitine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin.
Hypothyroidism: Avoid using acetyl-L-carnitine in individuals with hypothyroidism. L-carnitine seems to inhibit the activity of the thyroid hormone in the target tissues. Theoretically, this might occur with acetyl-L-carnitine.
Seizures: An increase in seizure frequency or severity has been reported in people with a history of seizures who have used L-carnitine orally or intravenously. Theoretically, this might occur with acetyl-L-carnitine.
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Safety during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been established.